The foot is a robust structure ‘designed’ to take load and strain. However some people have inherited almost imperceptable imbalances within the bones of their feet. These imbalances can be corrected during a biomechanical evaluation and shoe inserts or orthotics can be prescribed. Corns and calluses are generally caused by friction and pressure from footwear. If the footwear is inadequate, often a change to something more suitable will clear the problem. If the problem is due to foot or toe deformities corrective or protective devices may prove helpful. In either case, corns and calluses can be removed painlessly. Ingrowing toe nails are due to the nail penetrating the surrounding flesh of the toe. The side of the nail may be cleared in a routine treatment or may be surgically removed depending on how badly it is growing in. In cases where the nail is causing extreme pain, local analgesia may be given. Verrucae are warts on the foot caused by a virus. They can be treated using chemicals or by cryotherapy (freezing). Fungal infections of the foot can also be treated.